There is no practical use for them.
Google has launched a new feature for YouTube Premium paid subscribers. Now users of a paid subscription can receive various achievements and rewards in the process of using the service.
From time to time, users will receive a notification in the feed in the style of Congrats on your new badge! (Congratulations on your new award!), which covers the entire screen and provides a fun animated icon. You can view all of your earned rewards on the Your Premium benefits page.
YouTube users can now earn ‘achievements’ and earn ‘rewards’
Rewards are given for using various features of YouTube Premium, long-term viewing in picture-in-picture mode, listening to YouTube Music for 100 hours, and so on.
Collecting such awards does not bring any practical benefit. Apparently, this is one way to let people know what features YouTube Premium has to offer, in addition to disabling ads.